api教程完整版pdf(Api开发教程)

一、准备工作

1.Visual Studio NuGet程序包源配置

源地址:
http://47.102.150.59:8087/nuget/

一些辅助功能包,能提高开发效率

2.创建项目

选择项目类型、自定义项目名称

3.基础配置

项目应用端口配置、IOC容器配置、日志配置、数据库配置、Map映射配置…

 //Program.cs
         public static void Main(string[] args)
         {
             var config = new ConfigurationBuilder()
                 .SetBasePath(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())
                 // 添加端口配置文件
                 .AddJsonFile("hosting.json", true)
                 .Build();
 
             var host = Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)
                 // 添加Autofac作为IOC容器
                 .UseServiceProviderFactory(AppServiceProvider.Instance().AutofacServiceProviderFactory)
                 .ConfigureWebHostDefaults(webHostBuilder =>
                 {
                     webHostBuilder
                       .UseContentRoot(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())
                       .UseConfiguration(config)
                       .UseStartup<Startup>();
                 })
                 .Build();
 
             host.Run();
         }
 //Startup.cs
         public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
         {
             MapperHelper.CreateMap();//Map映射配置
             services.UseNCoreAspNet<NCoreAspNetOptions>(options =>
             {
                 //日志配置
                 options.Log4netConfig = "log4net.config";
                 options.UseUpload = true;
                 options.UseAnyCors = true;
                 options.ApiSecurityFilter = false;
                 //数据库配置
                 options.DefaultDBOptions = new DefaultDBOptions
                 {
                     DBSectionName = "DBConnectionSetting",
                     DefaultConnectionName = "defaultConnection"
                 };
             });
         }

二、API实现

1.创建数据模型(ViewModel)

定义接口需要数据属性(名称、类型、约束等…)【属性命名规则全部用小写,方便前端 JS 调用时不用检查某个属性大小写问题】

     /// <summary>
     ///用户基本信息
     /// </summary>
     public class UserViewMmodel
     {
         /// <summary>
         /// 用户名
         /// </summary>
         public string user_name { get; set; } = "hanbing";
 
         /// <summary>
         /// 昵称
         /// </summary>
         public string nickname { get; set; } = "老卢聊技术";
 
         /// <summary>
         /// qq号码
         /// </summary>
         public string qq { get; set; } = "81868164";
 
         /// <summary>
         ///微信号码
         /// </summary>
         public string wxid { get; set; } = "hanbing_81868164";
 
         /// <summary>
         /// 地址
         /// </summary>
         public string address { get; set; }
 
         /// <summary>
         /// 年龄
         /// </summary>
         public int age { get; set; }
 
         /// <summary>
         /// 创建时间
         /// </summary>
         public DateTime creation_time { get; set; }
 
         /// <summary>
         /// 版本信息
         /// </summary>
         public string version { get; set; }
     }

2.创建控制器(Controller),编写逻辑代码

1).设置接口输出数据格式(JSON或XML)

     [Produces("application/json")]//Controller中方法默认输出json格式数据
     //[Produces("application/xml")]//Controller中方法默认输出xml格式数据
     public class TestApiController : Controller

2).设置接口路由(定义接口版本【方便后期和新版本区分】)

     [Route("api/v1/testapi")]//固定路由配置
     //[Route("api/v1/[controller]")]//固定部分路由配置
     public class TestApiController  : Controller

3).设置接口请求Method,常见如下:

GET :从服务器取出资源(一项或多项)

POST :在服务器新建一个资源

PUT :在服务器更新资源(客户端提供改变后的完整资源)

PATCH :在服务器更新资源(客户端提供改变的属性)

DELETE :从服务器删除资源

         /// <summary>
         /// 返回用户信息接口
         /// </summary>
         /// <returns></returns>
         [HttpGet]//请求方法为GET
         [Route("getuser")]//自定义路由
         //[Produces("application/xml")]//输出xml格式
         public Task<UserViewMmodel> Index()
         {}

4).返回JSON数据格式接口

         /// <summary>
         /// 返回用户信息接口
         /// </summary>
         /// <returns></returns>
         [HttpGet]//请求方法为GET
         [Route("getuser")]//自定义路由
         //[Produces("application/xml")]//输出xml格式
         public Task<UserViewMmodel> Index()
         {
             return Task.Run(() =>
             {
                 UserViewMmodel res = null;
                 //业务逻辑代码....
                 res = new UserViewMmodel
                 {
                     address = "上海市浦东区世纪大道200号",
                     age = 23,
                     creation_time = DateTime.Now,
                     version = "v1.0"
                 };
 
                 return res;
             });
         }

5).返回文件(输出文件)接口

         /// <summary>
         /// 输出文件接口
         /// </summary>
         /// <returns></returns>
         [HttpGet]//请求方法为GET
         [Route("getfile")]//自定义路由
         public FileResult Download()
         {
             var fileData = $"{Directory.GetCurrentDirectory()}/wwwroot/css/site.css";
             var actionresult = new FileStreamResult(fileData.GetFileData().ToStream(), "text/css");
             actionresult.FileDownloadName = "site.css";
             return actionresult;
         }

6).裁剪图片接口

         /// <summary>
         /// 裁剪图片接口
         /// </summary>
         /// <param name="width"></param>
         /// <param name="name"></param>
         /// <returns></returns>
         [HttpGet]//请求方法为GET
         [Route("getimage/{width}/{name}")]//自定义路由
         public IActionResult GetImage(int width, string name)
         {
             var imgPath = $@"{Directory.GetCurrentDirectory()}/wwwroot/imgs/{name}";
 
             //缩小图片
             using (var imgBmp = new Bitmap(imgPath))
             {
                 //找到新尺寸
                 var oWidth = imgBmp.Width;
                 var oHeight = imgBmp.Height;
                 var height = oHeight;
                 if (width > oWidth)
                 {
                     width = oWidth;
                 }
                 else
                 {
                     height = width * oHeight / oWidth;
                 }
                 var newImg = new Bitmap(imgBmp, width, height);
                 newImg.SetResolution(72, 72);
                 byte[] bytes;
                 using (var ms = new MemoryStream())
                 {
                     newImg.Save(ms, ImageFormat.Bmp);
                     bytes = ms.GetBuffer();
                 }
                 return new FileContentResult(bytes, "image/jpeg");
             }
         }

7).上传单个文件接口

         /// <summary>
         /// 上传文件,需要指定name值为fromFile,如:form-data; name="fromFile"; filename="8.png"
         /// </summary>
         /// <param name="fromFile"></param>
         /// <returns></returns>
         [Route("upfile")]//自定义路由
         [HttpPost]//请求方法为POST
         [AllowAnonymous]
         public UpFileViewModel UplodeFile([FromForm] IFormFile fromFile)
         {
             if (fromFile != null)
             {
                 using (var sm = fromFile.OpenReadStream())
                 {
                     string savePath = $"{Directory.GetCurrentDirectory()}/wwwroot/temp/{Id.LongId()}{fromFile.FileName.GetExtension()}";
                     sm.Save(savePath);
                 }
                 return new UpFileViewModel { code = 0, msg = "保存成功" };
             }
             return new UpFileViewModel { code = 1, msg = "保存失败" };
         }

8).上传多个文件接口

         /// <summary>
         /// 上传多个文件,需要指定name值为files,如:form-data; name="files"; filename="8.png"
         /// </summary>
         /// <param name="fromFile"></param>
         /// <returns></returns>
         [Route("upfiles")]//自定义路由
         [HttpPost]//请求方法为POST
         [AllowAnonymous]
         public UpFileViewModel UplodeFiles([FromForm] IFormFileCollection files)
         {
             if (files != null)
             {
                 files.ForEach(fromFile =>
                 {
                     using (var sm = fromFile.OpenReadStream())
                     {
                         string savePath = $"{Directory.GetCurrentDirectory()}/wwwroot/temp/{Id.LongId()}{fromFile.FileName.GetExtension()}";
                         sm.Save(savePath);
                     }
                 });
                 return new UpFileViewModel { code = 0, msg = "保存成功" };
             }
             return new UpFileViewModel { code = 1, msg = "保存失败" };
         }

9).上传多文件接口,上传时不需要指定name参数

         /// <summary>
         /// 上传时不需要指定name参数:form-data; name=""; filename="222222222222.jpg"
         /// </summary>
         /// <returns></returns>
         [Route("upfiles2")]//自定义路由
         [HttpPost]//请求方法为POST
         [AllowAnonymous]
         public UpFileViewModel UplodeFiles2()
         {
             var files = this.Request.Form?.Files;
             if (files != null)
             {
                 files.ForEach(fromFile =>
                 {
                     using (var sm = fromFile.OpenReadStream())
                     {
                         string savePath = $"{Directory.GetCurrentDirectory()}/wwwroot/temp/{Id.LongId()}{fromFile.FileName.GetExtension()}";
                         sm.Save(savePath);
                     }
                 });
                 return new UpFileViewModel { code = 0, msg = "保存成功" };
             }
             return new UpFileViewModel { code = 1, msg = "保存失败" };
         }

4).待续…

3.进行接口调用测试

4.增加日志记录功能

5.发布接口程序到服务器(windows & linux)

[b2_index_module key=shengming]
[b2_index_module key=cnxh]

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